Hi - I'm Melissa
so good of you to join me
as we journey together
into the cosmos




Carl Sagan on astrology in newspapers.  From his interview with Ted Turner.

Also, photosets are fun.

I will never stop reblogging this set.


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Sorry, Pluto

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I’ll be 23 tomorrow ~

This is what I’ll be doing today~


Amazing collages by Joe Webb

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Helioseismology: seismology of the Sun

The Sun oscillates and vibrates at many frequencies, like an ocean surface or …like a bell. Certain frequencies are amplified by constructive interference(wave propagation) and the turbulence “rings” the sun like a bell. Unfortunately, sound does not carry through the vacuum between the Sun and the earth, so we have to “listen" to the oscillations by looking at the motions of material on the surface of the Sun. With the right instruments, scientists can "hear" this ringing or pulsations from the Sun. To do this, they use an instrument called a Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), mounted on the SOHO spacecraft and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), one of the three instruments that make up the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO).

Although direct study of its interior is impossible —mostly because the Sun is nearly opaque to electromagnetic energy, insights into the conditions within the Sun may be gained by observing oscillating waves, rhythmic inward and outward motions of its visible surface. These oscillations on the surface are due to sound waves generated and trapped inside the sun. Sound waves are produced by pressure fluctuations in the turbulent convective motions of the sun’s interior. These trapped sound waves set the sun vibrating in millions of different patterns or modes. Using this acoustic energy, we can “see into the Sun”, just as geologists use seismic waves to study the structure of the Earth, the discipline of helioseismology makes use of acoustic pressure waves (infrasound) traversing the Sun’s interior. These oscillations are seen as volumes of gas called granules near the Sun’s surface that rise and fall with a particular frequency. It is like seeing the rolling motions of convection cells on the surface of  boiling water. This happens very close to the surface where the flow of energy that started in the nuclear reactions in the core reaches the surface and suddenly escapes. The sound from the convection is then trapped and filtered inside the sun to produce the solar music

Helioseismologists can use the properties of these waves to determine the temperature, density, composition, and motion of the interior of the sun. The spectral lines emitted from gas moving upwards will be slightly Doppler-shifted to the blue; spectral lines from gas moving downwards will be slightly Doppler-shifted to the red. In this way the rolling motions of convection near the Sun’s surface can be mapped out. There are three types of oscillations. Pressure modes (p-modes) are sound waves trapped in the temperature gradient (like an echo bouncing around inside a cavern). Fundamental modes (f-modes) or surface gravity waves are caused by gravitational interactions with the sun’s surface and resemble ocean waves. Gravity modes (g-modes) are not completely understood, but they are believed to be the result of buoyancy effects. All the known pressure and fundamental modes (some 10 million) have oscillation periods of less than 18 minutes, and most are around 5 minutes. The gravity modes are not known conclusively to exist, but they are predicted to have periods of 40 minutes or longer (160-min)

Further readings:


On land, sunlight illuminates a world that’s bright and bursting with color. But in the ocean, light and color diminish as the water gets deeper. Take a look at what happens to light as it moves through the water, and how marine organisms have adapted.
Learn more in our traveling exhibition, Creatures of Light.  


I think of all the -ographies, “selenography” is my favorite.

Enjoy these historical atlases of the moon, the earliest studies of the moon’s surface features (AKA “selenography”). The above were drawn by:

  • Michel van Langren (1645)
  • Johannes Hevelius (1647)
  • Giovanni Cassini (1679)
  • Tobias Mayer (1749)
  • Richard Andree (1881)
  • Henry White Warren (1879)

Previously: Check out Galileo’s watercolor illustrations of the moon, and find out how a few simple sketches realigned the heavens.

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I got this from a friend who was reading majority of the Elsword forums.


Japanese Government Enforcing Anti-Piracy Law on Anime and Manga
Image List: [x]
Original Source: [x]

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i feel like im watching dragon ball Z and goku is about to show up and fight final form neil degrassi tyson

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